2011 data from the European Patent Office (EPO) shows that Europe is a hub of innovation.
The most innovative European cities include:
- Eindhoven, the Netherlands: 250 patent applications per 100,000 people
- Regensburg, Germany: 83.8 applications per 100,000 people.
- Aachen, Germany
- Heidelberg, Germany
- Grenoble, France: 80 applications per 100,000
- Darmstadt, Germany
- Zurich, Germany
- Basel, Germany
The least inventive cities include:
- Almería and Jerez de la Frontera, southern Spain
- Taranto, Reggio di Calabria, and Palermo in southern Italy
- Czestochowa in southern Poland.